Sigmund Freud, an Austrian neurologist born in 1856 and the founder of psychoanalysis, revolutionized the field of psychology. At a time when medicine and psychiatry focused primarily on the brain's anatomy, Freud delved into the exploration of mental health and the workings of the subconscious. He became intrigued by suppressed trauma and emotions, which led him to analyze unconscious processes and help patients therapeutically. Freud extensively studied his own mind, analyzing his dreams and childhood memories, and observed his children to develop his theories on childhood dreams.
Freud's groundbreaking work eventually culminated in his major publication in 1901, "The Interpretation of Dreams." Dreams played a pivotal role in his research, as he believed they provided a means to express secretive and instinctual unconscious desires. Additionally, Freud posited that memories of daily events find their way into our dreams, briefly before waking up. It is now known that dreams can occur in various sleep phases and can be of considerable length, contrary to Freud's earlier assumptions.
Freud's model of the psyche, also known as the tripartite model, describes the structure and functioning of the human mind according to his psychoanalytic theory. This model consists of three main components: the id, the ego, and the superego. Each of these elements plays a distinct role in shaping human behavior and psychological processes.
The id represents the most primitive and instinctual part of the psyche. It operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification of basic biological and psychological needs. The id is driven by unconscious desires and impulses, such as hunger, aggression, and sexual impulses. It operates on unconscious and impulsive urges, seeking immediate gratification without regard for social norms or consequences.
The ego develops as a result of the interaction between the id and the external world. It operates on the reality principle, balancing the desires of the id with the constraints of the external reality. The ego mediates between the id's impulsive desires and the superego's moral standards, seeking to find socially acceptable ways to satisfy the id's needs. The ego employs defense mechanisms, such as repression, denial, and rationalization, to cope with conflicts and protect the individual from anxiety.
The superego represents the internalized moral values, societal rules, and parental influences that individuals acquire during childhood. It operates on the morality principle, serving as the conscience and internalizing societal norms and moral standards. The superego consists of two parts: the ego ideal, which represents the ideal self and sets standards for perfection and achievement, and the conscience, which enforces moral judgments and punishes feelings of guilt or wrongdoing.
According to Freud, the interactions and conflicts between these three components shape an individual's personality and behavior. The id, ego, and superego operate at various levels of consciousness, with the id being mostly unconscious, the ego operating at conscious and preconscious levels, and the superego containing both conscious and unconscious elements. Freud's model of the psyche highlights the dynamic interplay between instinctual drives, reality demands, and moral considerations in shaping human behavior.
It provides a framework for understanding internal conflicts, defense mechanisms, and the development of personality traits.
Freud's dream theory, also known as the psychoanalytic dream theory, revolves around the belief that dreams harbor symbolic elements that allow for the expression of hidden desires, fears, and unresolved childhood experiences. He introduced the concepts of the "manifest content" and the "latent content" of dreams. The manifest content refers to the surface-level storyline or images experienced during a dream, while the latent content represents the hidden, symbolic meanings that require interpretation to uncover the dream's true significance.
Freud identified several dream mechanisms, including condensation, displacement, and symbolization, which contribute to the distortion and disguise of dream content. Condensation involves the merging of multiple thoughts, emotions, or symbols into a single dream image, while displacement entails redirecting intense emotions from their original source to less threatening objects or events within the dream. Symbolization, on the other hand, represents complex ideas or emotions through symbolic objects or scenarios. By interpreting dreams, individuals gain insight into their unconscious desires and conflicts, fostering psychological healing and self-discovery.
This can be two images overlaid such as “The face I saw in my dream was my uncle and my friend at the same time”. It can also appear as a common feature in two different elements such as “An evil thief and an angel were both trying to help me”. It can also be seen if the dream combines two words into one new word.
Displacement is redirecting energy such as an angry CEO having a stressful workday and taking it out on his children at home. To his children, it seems he is angry at them, but he's really angry about something else. An example of this in a dream could be seen as important things being represented by seemingly insignificant symbols, making the dream appear to mean one thing when in reality it means something else. Verbal expressions are often replaced by pictorial (visual, concrete) representations in dreams as well.
This is more of a personal symbolism of a dream object. For example, a storm brewing on the horizon must be a symbol of the emotional turmoil that the dreamer is going through. Freud interpreted many symbols as phallic and related to sexual urges.
According to Freud, therapists possess greater expertise in understanding dream meanings than patients themselves. He developed numerous dream symbols, often associated with hidden sexual desires, believing that dreams serve as a means for the mind to censor such content. Freud rigidly adhered to specific symbol meanings and applied them universally across his patients.
Freud considered every dream to be meaningful and established methods of dream analysis that are still utilized today. He introduced the practice of free association, in which he guided his students to form random and unrestricted associations with each dream symbol, allowing for a glimpse into the unconscious mind. Some modified versions of this free association practice are still used today by mental health practitioners.
Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, both pioneers in psychology, initially collaborated closely on studying the unconscious psyche. In 1910 Freud, along with a group of his students, founded the International Psychoanalytic Association, with Carl Jung as the president. They began to put together theories on the structure of the mind. However, they eventually diverged due to differing beliefs. Jung disagreed with Freud's theory that suppressed sexual desires played a dominant role in human behavior, offering a less cynical approach.
To read more about Carl Jung’s approach to dreams, check out our article Carl Jung’s View on Dream Analysis (oniri.io).
Modern psychology has revealed flaws in some of Freud's views. Dreams are not universally as sexual or meaningful as he posited. Furthermore, Freud's theories heavily relied on his clinical patients, many of whom faced severe psychological issues. Today, the general consensus is that the dreamer serves as the primary analyst of their own dreams, rather than relying on a therapist to provide the full meaning. Free association methods continue to be used to derive dream meanings, but no universal symbol applies to every dream.
Sigmund Freud's contributions to psychoanalysis laid the groundwork for further advancements in the field, thanks to subsequent figures such as Carl Jung, Carla Hill, and others. He played a pivotal role in bringing dreams into the realm of serious scientific study. While Freud's dream theory has garnered international recognition, it is important to acknowledge that his ideas have faced criticism and alternative interpretations. Contemporary approaches to dream analysis embrace a broader range of perspectives and theories.