Do Animals Dream?
Sleep & Dreams
May 29, 2023
November 3, 2023

Do Animals Dream?

All types of animals experience dreams, even birds and some fish! Animals have complex dreams and are able to retain and recall long sequences of events while they are asleep, similarly to humans.

How Can We Tell That Animals Dream?

Animals can't share their dreams with us, but there are ways for scientists to study how animals dream. One way is to observe animals while they sleep. Another way is to track their brain activity and compare it to our human brains and sleep cycles. Scientists have been able to observe cats and dogs twitching, sleepwalking, and fighting in their sleep, which indicates they are dreaming and acting it out. Animals dream about their lives, similar to humans. Cats may dream of chasing mice or scratching trees, for example. These behaviors are often reminiscent of the animals' actions during wakefulness, suggesting that they are indeed experiencing dream states.

Current research on cats’ and dogs' dreaming habits has shed light on their sleep patterns and the occurrence of dreams in these popular domestic pets. Both cats and dogs experience rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is associated with dreaming in humans. During REM sleep, animals exhibit various physiological and behavioral characteristics, such as twitching, paw movements, and vocalizations, which are suggestive of dream-like activity. These movements are believed to be the result of the brain processing and replaying experiences from wakefulness.

However, it is important to note that the scientific understanding of animal dreams, including those of cats and dogs, is still an evolving field. While researchers can observe the physical manifestations of dream-like activity during REM sleep, it is challenging to determine the content or nature of their dreams with certainty.

Future studies using techniques such as brain imaging or neural activity monitoring may provide further insights into the specifics of what cats and dogs dream about. These investigations could potentially explore the connections between dream activity, memory consolidation, and learning in these animals.

What About Other Animals?

The understanding of whether birds and fish experience dreams is limited, as it is challenging to study and measure dream activity in these animals. However, some research suggests that certain bird species and fish may exhibit behaviors during sleep that could be indicative of dreaming-like processes.

Birds have been shown to practice their songs while they sleep, which shows that their dreams serve a similar purpose to human dreams. Studies on zebra finches and pigeons have shown brain activity patterns during REM sleep that resemble those associated with learning and memory consolidation, suggesting a potential role for dreaming in these processes. Birds have sleep patterns similar to mammals, including alternating between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages.

Fish dreams have always been mysterious. Fish do not exhibit the same sleep patterns as mammals or birds. They do not have REM sleep as mammals do, and their sleep-like states are often referred to as "resting states" rather than true sleep. While the absence of REM sleep raises questions about whether fish experience dreams, some fish species have been observed displaying behaviors during rest that resemble dreaming-like activity. For example, certain species of fish have been observed making repetitive movements, eye twitches, and body color changes during resting states.

Dolphins and whales sleep in a half-awake state. Half of their brain is asleep, while the other keeps them coming up for oxygen.

The purpose of dreaming remains a mystery, but interestingly, infants of all species dream more often. More research is needed on the dreams of animals. Let’s take a look at what scientists have discovered so far.

Research on Animal Dreams

Research on animal dreams has revealed fascinating insights into the sleeping patterns and brain activity of various species. Rats and mice were studied extensively in sleep labs. Their brain activity in REM sleep behaved similarly to human REM activity. In a notable study conducted by an MIT neuroscientist in 2016, rat dreams were examined. The researcher observed the brain activity of rats both while navigating a maze and during their sleep. The findings indicated that the brain not only consolidates past experiences but also acquires knowledge about potential future actions.

The rodents dreamt of the maze, helping them solidify their knowledge and proactively find solutions to the maze. This suggests that animals' dreams serve a similar purpose to humans', aiding in memory consolidation and skill development.

Further studies have explored the dream patterns of other animals such as cats and dogs during REM sleep. Research suggests that the length and frequency of dreams may be related to the animal's size.  Smaller dogs seem to have more dreams than large ones. A toy poodle may dream every 10 minutes, while a Labrador Retriever may only dream once every 60-90 minutes. However, a large dog that has an active day outside may sleep more soundly and experience longer phases of REM sleep, giving them longer dreams.

Interestingly, the sleeping habits of snails have also been a subject of scientific inquiry. It has been discovered that snails have the extraordinary ability to sleep for extended periods, with some species capable of remaining in a state of slumber for up to three years. The reasons behind this remarkable phenomenon are not entirely understood, but it highlights the intriguing diversity of sleep patterns among different organisms. We are not certain if snails dream, but it is likely.

In contrast, animals in hibernation experience a different sleep cycle. During the long winter hibernation, animals' bodies become too cold to generate the electric currents associated with dreaming. As a result, it is believed that animals do not dream while in hibernation. This unique aspect of hibernation sleep further underscores the complex variations in sleep processes across the animal kingdom.


Overall, these studies on animal dreams provide valuable insights into the fascinating realm of sleep and consciousness in non-human organisms. By delving into the intricacies of their sleep patterns and brain activity, researchers continue to unravel the mysteries of animal cognition and the functions served by their dreams. Cats and dogs exhibit dream-like behaviors during REM sleep, indicating the presence of dreaming in these species.

Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the content and functions of their dreams, contributing to our knowledge of the complex world of animal sleep and cognition.

For more information on the function of dreams in humans, read our other article here:

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